Question
  1. What examples of learning by "happy accident" have you experienced in your own life?
  2. What do you think it means for a person (especially a scientist) to have a "prepared mind," as Pasteur describes?
  3. How can a person prepare his or her mind to be open to chance within any particular discipline? What roles might education, job experience, and life experience play in creating a prepared mind?
  4. What about science makes it particularly good at allowing people to analyze their accidents?
  5. What are some risks associated with research that involves chance? [Hint: Use your reading this week and consider the risks associated with stem cell research, cloning, gene therapy, HIV.] Are there circumstances when research should not be conducted due to risks or are there ways to reduce risk?
Grade: University | Subject: Psychology
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Tutorial

HAPPY ACCIDENT

There are miracles happening around us all the time but most of us are blind to them. We occasionally see a miracle when we experience a near miss in traffic.

For example, we could be walking along the street, we bump into somebody. We apologies to each other. This person looks familiar, so we ask them “Where have I seen you before?” They are not sure; they smile and rush off to continue with their day. We then go to cross the street but see that someone has just been hit by a car. The injured person was walking beside us a few moments ago but because we bumped into someone else we were delayed. The happy accident of bumping into the person saved us from being caught up in the traffic accident. This could be viewed as a minor event in our life.

PERSON’S PREPARED MIND

Many people do experiments expecting specific results because they believe that’s what they should see or measure.Such a prejudice can influence the experiment and make it invalid. After all, such a mind discards the anomalies, whereas it is the anomalies that lead to new information and the knowledge.

PREPARED MIND TO BE OPEN CHANCE

A disciplinary procedure is the means by which rules are observed and standards are maintained.In the area of science, a person have chance can be good, but also dangerous. So we should always take precautions where safety and health are concerned. A person taking chancing, should prepare for the best outcome, but the same time be ready to deal with negative results.

PEOPLE ANALYZE THEIR ACCIDENTS USING BY SCIENCE

            Science is a good analyzing accidents because there are communities of people usually highly knowledgeable that use known testing guidelines, they have tried and tested scientific methods, as well as being known for producing concrete results based upon evidence.

The purpose of accident reporting and investigations is to prevent a recurrence of the hazardous condition causing the event. It also ensures that regularity requirements set by occupational safety and health are meet.

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH RESEARCH

Science refers to system of acquiring knowledge based on scientific method, and to the organized body of knowledge gained through such research. Science is, in broadest sense, any systematic knowledge base or prescriptive practice that is capable of resulting in a correct prediction or reliably-predictable type of outcome. HIV infection and AIDS is mainly done by antiviral chemotherapy which inhibits reverse transcriptase. The HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) has indeed succeeded extraordinary in decrease of the morality and in increase of the life expediency of AIDS patients. However, there have been some significant limitations of them. For example: treatment fatigues, the side effects, the emergency of resistant, high medical costs, etc. to explore the role of art interruption on expansion of HIV resistant HIV target cells, including immune cells, both in peripheral blood and gut mucosa.

REFERENCES

1.Happy Accidents by Jane Lynch (2011), Harper Collins Publishers, ISBN = 0007458452.

2.Encyclopedia Of Nursing by Joyce J. Fitzpatrick (2006), Springer Publishing Company, ISBN = 0826107516.

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