Question
The tensions between science and culture extend far beyond disputes over evolution. In some cases, science and culture disagree on not just what is true, but how actions should be taken in the real world. The story of Kennewick Man is a perfect example of this.
 
In 1996, while two tourists were visiting Kennewick, on the Columbia River in Washington, they stumbled across a human skull. After the police collected the skull and an almost completely intact skeleton, they determined that the bones came from a Caucasian man. But strangely, there was no murder investigation. This is because, in a very strange twist, Carbon-dating tests showed that the bones were more than 9,000 years old - much older than the earliest recorded Caucasian visits to North America in the 14th century.
 
Anthropologists, paleontologists, biologists and archaeologists all whipped themselves into a fury of excitement over these bones, which were soon given the name "Kennewick Man." Everyone, it seemed, wanted to study these remarkably well-preserved remains. At the same time, the local Umatilla Indians, whose ancestors have lived on the Columbia River for thousands of years, claimed the rights to rebury the remains, under the North American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). To this ancient tribe, the bones are sacred remnants of their ancestors, and as such, they should be returned to the ground.
 
Before you begin this week's discussion, read Edward Rothstein's article, "Antiquities, The World Is Your Homeland", and think carefully about the complicated ownership issues in this case.
 
Once you have read the article, visit the PBS website about Kennewick man, focusing on the anthropologists’ justifications for studying the remains:
 
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/first/claim.html
 
Debates over human remains and repatriation continue. More recently, additional human remains possessed by the University of California, San Diego, have been the center of a custody battle similar to that of the Kennewick Man. Review the basics of the dispute here:
 
http://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2012/05/ancient-american-skeletons-safe.html
 
Kumeyaay Cultural Repatriation:
 
http://www.kumeyaay.info/repatriation/
 
 
  • Taking Sides: First, take a side in this controversy by outlining the following:Learning from our mistakes: Without question, similar problems will be faced in the future as scientific exploration continues, and remains are likely to be found. Although the scientific method provides us with a framework for how to conduct our research using the remains, it does not take into account the ethics of scientific research. What are some additional criteria you could add to the scientific method in order to ensure that research is conducted in a moral and ethical way? Provide an example of an area of research/science that requires a code of ethics when suggesting your modifications to the scientific method.
    • Who do you think deserves ownership of the remains in each case and why?
    • What should be done with these remains, and what concessions would this require the scientific community and/or the tribes to make?
    • Respond to your classmates' posts and work together with them, as a class, to come up with some compromises to this issue.
 

Reference:
Trefil, J., & Hazen, R.M. (2011). The Sciences: An integrated approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Grade: University | Subject: Business
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DESERVE OWNERSHIP OF THE REMAINS

The deserve ownership in every case is the particular species or a thing that is found from a particular place can be buried or laid in the same place where it has been because the people believe that there ancestors remains in the home place so that there blessings and soul remains to be there native. The scientific and other archeological community decides to collect and preserve those remains in the museum to protect those things but the tribes are not convinced because they have the belief on such remains of there ancestors. There are more than so many historical examples of mankind in different parts of the world. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act found that the skeleton found in north America is the one among the oldest but the not the oldest. But some of the ancient artworks have been destroyed by some social evils so the government wants to protect those from them. The bones are important to identify the mystery the first people migrate from the old world to the new world. But university professors of California filed a lawsuit for preserving those particular remains in their home places is tedious and also the maintenance is not good. They also told that the remains can be saved for future scientific analysis by researching the DNA to know the lifestyle and diet of ancient people.

SCIENTIFIC DECLARATION & ETHICS

The ethics that has the scientific declaration can have certain rules but the ancient remains should be remain in the same place so that the belief of people remains the same. The government is also taking all necessary steps to protect the archeological evidence of ancient culture and also the tradition and other things followed by the people in olden days. But some how some of the complicated things like the story of Kennewick man are still controversial in the country.

The scientific declaration and ethics has so many rules but a trust relationship between a scientist and society can have seven principles :

  • Act with skill and care, keep skills up to date
  • Prevent corrupt practice and declare conflicts of interest
  • Respect and acknowledge the work of other scientists
  • Ensure that research is justified and lawful
  • Minimize impacts on people, animals and the environment
  • Discuss issues science raises for society
  • Do not mislead; present evidence honestly

REFERENCES

James S. Trefil & Robert M. Hazen (2011), The Sciences : An Integrated Approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Inc, ISBN = 1118185269.

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